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Author Guidelines

The Journal of Natal and Zulu History publishes articles of between 6,000 and 10,000 words in length. References - in footnote format - should be as brief as possible.


'S' spellings rather than 'z' spellings should be used throughout the text.

All quotations in text and footnotes must be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Use nineteenth/twentieth century instead of 19th/20th century.

Dates should be thus: 27 August 1966

All non-English words must be italicised and on the first usage, their meanings in English given in brackets next to the word.


The system of documenting sources should follow the note system of documentation, whereby notes documenting the text, and corresponding to reference numbers in the text, appear at the bottom of the page as footnotes.

Footnotes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1.
Note numbers: wherever possible, note reference numbers in the text should come at the end of a sentence, or at least at the end of a clause. When material is quoted, the note number should follow the quotation.
For tables and other illustrative material, symbols or letters should be used to indicate the notes. The notes themselves are to be placed below the table or illustration, not at the foot of the page.

FIRST REFERENCE IN FOOTNOTES (& Corresponding Bibliography entries)

A footnote documenting the first reference (in the typescript) to a source should include the full bibliographical information.

For books the complete bibliographical information is the following:

Author: full name of author or authors; full name of editor or editors if no single author is listed; or name of institution responsible for writing of the book

Title: full title of the book, including subtitle if there is one

Editor, compiler or translator, if any, and if in addition to listed author

Edition, if not the first

Volumes, total number if multi-volume work is referred to as a whole

Volume number of multi-volume work, if single volume is cited

Title of individual volume, if applicable

Series title, if applicable, and volume number within series

Facts of publication: city, publisher and date

Page number(s); or volume and page number(s), if applicable

Examples in footnotes:

Meera Abraham, Two Medieval Merchant Guilds of South India (Delhi: Manohar, 1988), 75.

Rodney Hilton, ed., The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1978.

A. Appadorai, Economic Conditions in Southern India, 1000-1500 A.D., 2 vols. (Madras: University of Madras, 1936).

When referring to page nos. in a multi-volume work, the volume no. is put after the parentheses and is followed by a colon :

A. Appadorai, Economic Conditions in Southern India, 1000-1500 A.D. (Madras: University of Madras, 1936), 2: 47.

Note: “vol.” and “p.”/ “pp” are dropped before the volume and page numbers.


For articles in books the full information includes the following:

Author’s name

Title of article

Editor’s name if article appears in an edited book

And all the remaining information listed above for books

Example in footnote:

D. N. Jha, “Merchants and Temples in South India”, in Essays in Honour of S. C. Sarkar, ed. Barun De (Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1975), 119.


For articles in periodicals the full information includes the following:

Author’s name
Title of the article
Title of the periodical
Issue information (volume, issue number, date)
Page reference

Example in footnote:

Susan J. Lewandowski, “Merchants and Kingship: An Interpretation of Indian Urban History”, Journal of Urban History 11, no. 2, 1985, 151-79.


For unpublished material like theses, dissertations, occasional papers and so on, the full information would include:

Author’s name
Title of the work
University/sponsoring body/institution/department

Examples in footnotes:

Amiya Kumar Bagchi, “Merchants and Colonialism”, occasional paper no. 38, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, 1981.

P. Swarnalatha, “The World of the Weaver in the Northern Coromandel, 1750-1850” (Ph.D. diss., University of Hyderabad, 1991).

Primary sources other than archival material

As far as possible, complete bibliographic information (year, place, publisher, author/editor/compiler) must be provided (in footnotes and bibliography) for references like settlement, census, administrative and statistical reports, gazetteers, other official and non-offical reports and documents, and rare printed tracts and rare books.


Annual Report on the Police of the Orissa Division for the Year 1869. Calcutta, 1870.

Hunter, W. W. A Statistical Account of Bengal. Vol. 18, District of Cuttack and Balasor. London. Trubner and Company, 1877.

Report on the Administration of Kalahandi for 1933-34. Kalahandi State Press, n.d.


After the first, full reference in a note, all subsequent references to a source (throughout the book) are shortened in the following manner: last name of the author/editor, followed by a short title and the page number. The short title should contain the key word/words from the main title of the work (book, chapter, article, unpublished paper, or thesis).

For example:

If the first full reference in the footnote is,

Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Post-Colonial Histories (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994), 20.

Then the subsequent reference to the same source would be as follows:

Chatterjee, Nation and its Fragments, 35.

Other examples:

Bagchi, “Merchants and Colonialism”, 32.

Lewandowski, “Merchants and Kingship”, 163.

Appadorai, Economic Conditions, 1: 76. [where 1 is the vol. no.]

Hilton, Transition from Feudalism, 269. [note: ed. is not added after the last name in a short title.

If two or more authors with the same last name are cited, the first name or initials must also be included in the shortened reference.

The use of op. cit. is to be completely avoided. Instead, the short title system explained above is to be used.

Short titles must also be used for non-archival official and non-official sources. Where there are no author/editor/compiler names, the short titles consist only of the shortened titles and relevant page nos.


Administration of Kalahandi, 1933-34, 16.

Annual Report on the Police of Orissa, 1869, 232.

Hunter, Statistical Account, Cuttack and Balasor, 367-70.

For several contributions to the same book

In the footnote, the full bibliographic information for the contributory volume need appear only once, when the first contributory article is cited in the footnote. Subsequently, reference to the contributory volume can appear in a short form. In the bibliography, the specific contributions as well as the contributory volume are to be listed separately. And the entries for the individual contributions can cross-refer to the book’s editor/s, so as to avoid clutter.

For example,

Hamilton Gibb, “Islamic Biographical Literature, in Historians of the Middle East, ed. Bernard Lewis (London: Oxford University Press, 1962), 55.

Andrew Lambton, “Persian Biographical Literature”, in Lewis, Historians of the Middle East, 147.


All tables must be numbered sequentially either within each chapter or across chapters, must carry titles and indicate the source(s) of the data, when it has been taken or adapted from secondary sources.

The sources of all tables and other illustrative material must be provided below the table or illustration but above the table/illustration footnotes.

All illustrations (figures, maps and photographs) must be numbered sequentially must carry a caption (and legend if required) and should indicate the source, when taken from secondary sources.


In numbers (excluding page numbers, addresses, years), commas should be used between groups of three digits, starting from the right.

For example: 52, 071; 7, 251; 2,000, 834

For inclusive numbers (page numbers and years), two digits (or more if necessary) are used for the second number.

For example: 321-28; 426-683; 1893-96; 1588-91; 1684-723

DATES: Day, Month and Year - e.g. 17 March 1998


Sections within chapters/articles should be separated by subheadings and sub-subheadings, rather than by section numbers.


The general rule is to proceed from the general to the specific, giving the physical place where the documents are located first, moving through collection, volume, file, document to date. While there are differences of convention regarding the use of commas, colons and other punctuation, consistency is to be striven for throughout an article. Here are some examples of primary source referencing.

First reference to a document:

Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository (PAR) Pietermaritzburg Corporation (PC) 3/PMB 1/1/3 1031, Minutes of Town Council Meeting, 8 March 1865.

Subsequent references

PAR PC 3/PMB 1/1/3 1031, Minutes of Town Council Meeting, 8 March 1865.

First reference to a document:

National Archives Repository, Pretoria (NAR) Prime Minister’s Office (PM) 1/1/322 184/2/1913, Memorandum from Dr. J.T. Dunston and Mr. P. Eagle to Acting Secretary for the Interior, “Public Health: Extension of Lunatic and Leper Asylums”, 22 December 1912, 8.

Subsequent references:

NAR PM 1/1/322 184/2/1913, Dunston and Eagle to Acting Secretary for the Interior, “Public Health: Extension of Lunatic and Leper Asylums”, 22 December 1912, 8.

The Natal Witness, “Coffee and Cannabis Crops Bring Boom Times to City”, 27 March 1863.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.

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